South Sudan’s Refugee Crisis and Ideas for a Way Forward, by Jeff Grischow

On August 17, the Guardian newspaper reported that the number of South Sudanese refugees in Uganda reached the one million mark.  Another million have fled to Sudan, Ethiopia and the Democratic Republic of Congo.  According to Jason Burke of the Guardian, the fighting between South Sudan’s factions ‘has created the fastest growing refugee crisis in the world.’  The article, like many others, provides an important record of the personal stories of some of the South Sudanese victims of the conflict.  Thousands of children have arrived in Uganda without their parents; children and parents miss their homes but have nothing to return to; refugees in overcrowded camps depend on international NGOs to meet their basic needs.

South Sudan’s crisis is one of the most important global issues of the past year, but it has not been widely covered in the press.  The Guardian article reminded me, however, of a piece published in the New York Times earlier this year, which moved beyond the regular descriptions of the conflict to present the views of some leading experts on how to move forward.  I think it’s worth sharing in this blog.

Published on January 23, 2017, the article – written by Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist Jeffrey Gettleman – asked whether South Sudan should be taken over by an international body to stabilize the political situation and buy time to find a solution to the civil war that has been raging since 2013.  The strongest proponent of this idea was the well-known Ugandan political scientist Mahmood Mamdani, who proposed a six-year trusteeship period managed by the African Union with oversight by the United Nations.  Under Mamdani’s plan, none of South Sudan’s political elite would be allowed to participate.  Opposed to this plan is James Solomon Padiet from Juba University, who feels that an international takeover would be ‘offensive’ because it would exclude many good South Sudanese leaders who are ‘waiting in the wings’ for a chance to contribute to the country’s future.  Padiet also said that many South Sudanese – especially the Dinka – would oppose the idea of an international takeover and its interference with South Sudan’s sovereignty.

Taking a ‘middle position’ is Amir Idris, the Chair of the African and African-American Studies program at Fordham University in New York and a well-respected Sudanese intellectual.  Idris argues that the trusteeship option might be considered as a ‘last resort’ but that the priority should be to build a new South Sudan after removing the current political elite in its entirety.  This would open the door for a new group of South Sudanese politicians and experts to restart the development of the country along more positive lines.  Idris has written about the need for international involvement many times before, and as one of the most important scholars and activists involved in South Sudan his ideas should be considered very closely.

If you are interested in learning more about the current conflict in South Sudan, including historical and contemporary perspectives, here are a few sources that I consider especially worth reading:

Newspaper/popular media articles:

https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2017/aug/17/south-sudan-refugee-families-uganda

https://mobile.nytimes.com/2017/01/23/world/africa/quandary-in-south-sudan-should-it-lose-its-hard-won-independence.html?_r=0&referer=https://www.google.com/

http://www.newsweek.com/how-heal-wounds-south-sudan-civil-war-408274

Amir Idris, Identity, Citizenship, and Violence in Two Sudans: Re-imagining a Common Future (Palgrave, 2013).

Douglas Johnson, South Sudan: A New History for a New Nation (Ohio University Press, 2011)

Douglas Johnson, The Root Causes of Sudan’s Civil Wars, 3rd edition (Boydell and Brewer, 2016).

 

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Africa and Puerto Rico: Reflections on Loiza and Hacienda La Esperanza By Heather Smith, Wilfrid Laurier University

On June 2 and 4, the students in my travel course ‘Themes in Puerto Rican History’ visited two field sites with deep historical connections to Africa: Loiza, one of the most prominent Afro-Puerto Rican cities (chronicled in my previous blog entry), and Hacienda La Esperanza, a 19th century sugar plantation.  Here are the reflections of one of the student, Heather Smith, who is majoring in History, Medieval Studies and Music.

Jeff Grischow, Tshepo Institute, Wilfrid Laurier University

Loíza: June 2, 2017

I feel privileged to have had the opportunity to see a diversity of sites in Loíza. From a cathedral with a prominently featured St. Patrick, to the house of Samuel Lind, to learning to dance the bomba—it was a fascinating experience which is quite possibly my favorite day thus far. In terms of my overall impressions of the day’s events, one of the most significant aspects of the Puerto Rican narrative I noticed today was the difference in the depiction of the Taino origins. Samuel Lind himself emphasized the idea that the goddess after which the town is named – Loíza, or Yoisa, was present in the lands and could be felt in the caves. To this point, Lind’s depiction of the Loíza in clay looked very different from depictions we have seen in earlier days, and appeared much more “African” and less stereotypically Spanish. This was fascinating to see. Lind brings business and tourism to Loíza through his work, as our visit exemplified. Thus, the narratives which he both speaks and depicts through his art carry weight in terms of public perception. As such, he can be viewed as a cultural intermediary of sorts, communicating Loíza’s story to those who visit him and purchase his work. A cursory view of his facebook page reveals again, this emphasis upon Puerto Rico’s African roots and his mission to bringing awareness to that vision, as well as how this aligns with his view of the Taino culture as perhaps implicitly being connected to this African heritage. At the cave was a circle of stones with “Taino” drawings and symbols. This, alongside the drummers playing off to the side implicitly connected African culture and the site, with the Taino narrative.

samuel-lind-studio

Samuel Lind’s Studio, Loíza

What struck me the most across all of the cultural sites was the regional pride of Loíza. In contrast to our previous visit to Caguas which emphasized the Taino roots of Puerto Rican culture in conjunction with Spanish and African cultures, this Loíza vision very much deemphasized the Spanish: there was no mention of colonialism in all of our tours and events, except in association with slavery and Smith the bomba as an escape from oppressive day-to-day conditions. Altogether, the colours of Loíza, the patron St. Patrick (whom Lind depicts as African, and refers to as ‘our boss’ on his facebook page), and the sense of triumph over slavery, combine to create the sense that Loíza is perhaps a microcosm of still another vision of Puerto Rican nationalism. This might more aptly be referred to as “regionalism” if such a term could be coined. I am very interested to further diversify this Puerto Rican idea of “African” through our tours in the coming days.

Hacienda la Esperanza: June 4, 2017

On June 4, I our Laurier group visited Haceinda La Esperanza.  Our guide delved very deeply into the history of slavery at the site (much more than the guide the coffee plantation Hacienda Buena Vista, which we visited the day before) and was willing to answer virtually any question. Representing the slaves’ voices, as well as social classes using a collection of knives was an innovative approach as this provided a tangible and tactile way of conveying the concept of social class and slavery through material culture. Our guide explained how the knives with ornate handles would have belonged to wealthy citizens, while the most basic and unornamented belonged to the slaves. It was also fascinating to have the story of the slave Cecilio, whom we read about in an article by Astrid Cubano Iquina’s article,* recounted by our tour guide in the physical location where these events occurred.

McInnis Esperanza 2

Sugar Mill Steam Engine, Hacienda La Esperanza

One interesting aspect of the site which more closely resembled the approach at Hacienda Buena Vista, was the emphasis on technology by the slave owners. Of all of the questions asked, our tour guide bristled somewhat at the question surrounding the legalities of importing the machinery to build the steam mill engine machine. Afterward Papo revisited this by mentioning that as this machinery was illegal, it was not discovered by the U.S. during the Second World War. Thus, it appears that the curators of the site may have specifically omitted this fact in the attempts to keep the focus on promoting the technological innovations of the past. Overall, the site was more balanced in its focus upon both the history and the conservation elements of the site than Hacienda Buena Vista. Still, the overarching focus was on the technology and the processes used at both sites. Thus, it is somewhat a missed opportunity to tell more of the stories of the slaves, as Iquina’s article did admirably.

*Cubano Iguina, Astrid, “Freedom in the making: the slaves of hacienda La Esperanza, Manatı´, Puerto Rico, on the eve of abolition, 1868–76,” Social History 36(3)(2011): 280-293

Meningitis Outbreak in Niger

by Jeff Grischow

Last week Niger’s Health Minister Mano Aghali reported a serious outbreak of meningitis, with 1,150 cases and 85 confirmed deaths. The announcement came on the heels of the World Health Organization’s recent approval of a new and cost-effective vaccine. The vaccine emerged out of the ten-year program – the Meningitis Vaccine Project (MVP) – launched in 2001 with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Structured as a partnership between the WHO, the health organization PATH, and the Serum Institute of India, the MVP developed the vaccine successfully by 2010. Between 2010 and 2015, the MVP carried out an initial mass vaccination campaign targeting 215 million people in 15 African countries. Its success led the WHO to approve the vaccine for general use in January, 2015.

Meningitis is a relatively recent global disease. It first appeared in Geneva in 1805 and New England in 1806 (Greenwood, 1999, 341). The first recorded outbreak in Africa occurred among French soldiers in Algiers in 1840, and by the 1880s it had spread to southern Africa (Greenwood, 1999, 341-3; Greenwood, 2006, 773). The first known outbreak in West Africa occurred in northern Nigeria in 1906, possibly carried back by West Africans who had travelled to present-day Sudan on their way to Mecca or supporting the anti-colonial uprising of the Mahdi. The Nigerian epidemic soon spread to northern Ghana and it affected tens of thousands of people. By this time, the scientific community had discovered the parasite responsible for the disease, but an effective vaccine eluded medical researchers for almost one hundred years. As a result, meningitis continued to plague communities across Africa’s ‘meningitis belt’ stretching from Senegal to Ethiopia. In fact, the biggest epidemic in Africa’s history broke out very recently, in 1996-7, claiming 25,000 victims. It was this event that prompted a number of African governments to approach the World Health Organization to find a solution, resulting in the MVP.

MeningitisBelt

Africa’s Meningitis Belt, 2009 (Source: http://www.humanosphere.org)

The present outbreak carries two lessons. First, there must be better international mechanisms for delivering the new vaccine to the affected countries. Niger, for instance, only possesses about half of the 1.2 million doses it needs. More fundamentally, the events in Niger illustrate that we know little more than we did a hundred years ago about why outbreaks appear ‘in a particular place at a particular time’ (Greenwood, 2006: 777-8). For this reason, perhaps we should take to heart Greenwood’s call for more research into the ‘carriage of the group A meningococcus in the African meningitis belt and the factors that influence it, for example the effects of age and season and the impact of the host’s immune response’ (Greenwood 2006, 779). In Greenwood’s opinion, the key area for future research must be the ‘epidemiology of nasopharyngeal infection with the meningococcus in Africa’ (Greenwood 2006, 779). Without this research, it may prove very difficult to predict the most important locations for mass immunization before tragic outbreaks like to one in Niger occur.

References:

Brian Greenwood, ‘100 years of epidemic meningitis in West Africa – has anything changed?,’ editorial, Tropical Medicine and International Health, 11(6)(June 2006): 773–780.

Brian Greenwood, ‘Manson Lecture: Meningococcal meningitis in Africa,’ Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 93(4)(1999): 341-353.

http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-32444865

http://www.path.org/menafrivac/about-mvp.php

http://www.meningvax.org/partners.php

http://www.who.int/immunization/newsroom/press/9_01_2015_meningitis_vaccine_who_approval/en